Air Force stands up Task Force Cyber Secure



By Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs, / Published March 31, 2015

WASHINGTON, (AFNS) -- Chief of Staff of the Air Force General Mark A. Welsh III signed a memorandum on March 20, establishing Task Force Cyber Secure, to address challenges of the cyberspace domain in synchronization, operations and governance within the Air Force and with those organizations it supports.

"This task force is fundamental to understanding the inherent risks within the cyberspace domain and instituting a culture change, in which our Airmen realize the impact cybersecurity has on all the Air Force core missions,” Welsh said.

Lt. Gen. Bill Bender, the Secretary of the Air Force chief of information dominance and chief information officer, outlined three main focus areas the task force will be responsible for.

“The task force will diagnose the extent of the cyber threat and the vulnerabilities that currently impact our core missions and will plan to develop a risk management plan that will allow the Air Force to fly, fight and win in a cyber-contested environment,” Bender said. “Finally, the task force will recommend investment priorities to the SECAF and CSAF for how best to address the cybersecurity challenges.

 “The Air Force focuses the majority of the cybersecurity effort on protecting the information technology we’ve always protected the last 20 years, but that’s only 20 percent of the problem,” Bender continued. He envisions a "comprehensive, enterprise-level look at the cyber threat as it relates to everything outside of that 20 percent."

 The concepts of mission assurance and cybersecurity were addressed and studied across the Department of Defense and the Air Force across multiple functional lines and major commands. A top priority of Task Force Cyber Secure is to be inclusive of all stakeholders who are working this cyber challenge already and to begin synchronizing and coordinating efforts for securing and mitigating operational risk to the most critical nodes and “centers of gravity.”

Pete Kim, the Cyberspace Operations and Warfighting Integration acting director, will lead the daily task force operations and direct an organization that will include cyberspace stakeholders throughout the Air Force.

“Many efforts for securing the core missions in cyberspace are currently distributed across multiple organizations and commands throughout the Air Force,” Kim said. “We have great leaders moving out on fixing ‘the problem’ within their functional areas, but the time is right to look into opportunities to synchronize and maximize resources at the corporate level in order to establish a foundational, consistent enterprise-wide approach in the future.”

 The task force efforts will inform Air Force strategic planning and programming for fiscal year 2017 and beyond. It will provide a governance plan for Air Force corporate board management and synchronization of cybersecurity investments of the future in the planning, programming, budgeting and execution (PPBE) process. The task force will also integrate multiple efforts and studies, attempting to address cybersecurity across the Air Force, focusing on Air Force core missions and provide a prioritized cybersecurity investment strategy for SECAF and CSAF.

 “We’re already seeing benefits of a focused task force standing up to address the cybersecurity challenge,” Bender said. “At a practical level, sharing information across the Air Force, education on the seriousness of the threat and the vulnerabilities, and connecting the dots are the benefits I’m beginning to see. We are also connecting with academia and commercial industry because we recognize their contributions as significant force multipliers in this domain.”

Lowongan Kerja Migas PT Chevron Indonesia

Lowongan Kerja Migas Terbaru PT Chevron Indonesia
Lowongan Kerja Migas PT Chevron Indonesia - Chevron Indonesia dulu bernama Unocal Indonesia adalah sebuah perusahaan minyak dan gas di Indonesia. Chevron Indonesia Company, atau CICo, adalah satu dari beberapa perusahaan dari Chevron IndoAsia Business Unit. Chevron Adalah Adalah Salah Satu Perusahaan Energi Terdepan Di Dunia, Dan Penghasil Minyak Bumi Terbesar Di Indonesia. Chevron Adalah Mitra Dalam Perekonomian Indonesia Dan Telah Menjadi Bagian Dari Anggota Masyarakat Selama Lebih Dari 80 Tahun. Saat Ini Kami Membutuhkan Tenaga - Tenaga Berpengelaman Dan Juga Lulusan - Lulusan Baru Dari Berbagai Bidang Untuk Ditempatkan Di Wilayah Operasi , PT Chevron Indonesia.


Untuk mencapai visi perusahaan yaitu menjadi kelompok bisnis terkemuka di Indonesia yang memberikan pelayanan terbaik kepada stakeholder-nya, PT Chevron Indonesia sedang mencari pemuda - pemudi terbaik yang sangat kompeten dan termotivasi diri untuk mengisi posisi lowongan kerja terbaru 2015.

Dalam rangka memperluas jaringan bisnis terbaru bulan April 2015 dan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sumber daya manusia PT Chevron Indonesia di Lowongan Terbaru posisi : BANYAK POSISI LOWONGAN KERJA

Pada Loker hari ini bulan April 2015 PT Chevron Indonesia kembali membuka kesempatan berkarir atau membuka Lowongan Kerja Terbaru bulan April 2015 untuk lulusan terbaru dengan kualifikasi sebagai berikut :


Lowongan Kerja Migas Terbaru PT Chevron Indonesia


Posisi Loker PT Chevron Indonesia :

CORPORATE AUDITOR (Kode : Ext-3/FIN/EXP/CHEVRON-IBU/OU/2015)

Persyaratan :
  • Experience in public accounting firm or as an internal auditor in a multinational oil company minimum 4 years.
  • Strong understanding of risk and controls (e.g. SOX) and experience in compliance reviews.
  • Strong knowledge of generally accepted accounting principles and auditing standards
  • Exposure to PSC / US GAAP is preferable
  • Good Knowledge of SAP and JDE system
  • Experience in leading audit engagements
  • Experience in analyzing large volumes of data and working with data analytical tools (e.g. ACL, MS Access)
  • Excellent in communication and interpersonal skills, and able to work in a diverse environment.
  • Ability to coordinate and communicate issues and recommendations effectively with senior management
  • Fluent in English and computer literacy
  • Ability to work independently, demonstrate initiative and deliver good quality audits within strict timelines.
  • Flexibility to travel and work in remote locations during audits.
  • Tingkat Pendidikan: S1 / D4
  • Minimum IPK: 2,75
  • Disiplin ilmu :
    • akuntansi
    • keuangan
  • Terbuka Untuk Semua Orang Indonesia
  • Area Kerja : Jawa
  • Lokasi Kerja : Jakarta
  • Status Pekerjaan : Permanent


      Catatan :
      • Pendaftaran Loker pada PT Chevron Indonesia ini berakhir tanggal : 12 April 2015
      • Hati - hati pada setiap perekrutan penipuan atas nama Chevron.
      • Chevron tidak pernah meminta pembayaran kepada pemohon atau menunjuk agen perjalanan untuk proses perekrutan.
      • Pemohon yang saat ini sedang dalam proses perekrutan dan diteruskan ke tahap perekrutan berikutnya akan secara resmi dihubungi oleh Chevron melalui email dengan domain "@careers.chevronindonesia.com"
      • Selalu periksa kembali dan memonitor status aplikasi Anda melalui akun Anda.


      Panduan Mendaftar Loker di PT Chevron Indonesia :

      1. Pendaftaran & Rekening Aktivasi
      • Mendaftar untuk memiliki akun di website e-Seleksi kami.
      • Setelah mengirimkan formulir pendaftaran, sistem akan mengirimkan email aktivasi ke email Anda yang terdaftar. Silakan periksa "Spam / Sampah Folder" jika Anda tidak dapat menemukannya di kotak masuk Anda.
      • Buka email aktivasi dan klik link untuk mengaktifkan account Anda.
      • Anda dapat login ke website e-Seleksi kami setelah Anda mengaktifkan account Anda, dengan menggunakan email yang terdaftar dan password.
      2. Lengkap Aplikasi Online
      • Pergi ke menu "Resume Saya" dan menyelesaikan semua informasi yang diperlukan dengan benar dalam setiap bagian.
      • Ada 10 bagian yang harus diselesaikan: Informasi Pribadi, Informasi Kontak, Pendidikan Latar Belakang, Pengalaman, Keahlian, Pelatihan & Magang, Awards, Organisasi, Karir & Penempatan dan lainnya.
      3. Terapkan Posisi
      • Setelah Anda menyelesaikan resume Anda, pergi ke menu "Terapkan Posisi" dan memilih posisi yang cocok dengan kualifikasi Anda.
      • Anda hanya bisa mendaftar untuk 1 posisi dalam satu tahun (satu siklus tahun). Pastikan posisi yang Anda lamar sesuai dengan kualifikasi Anda.
      • Anda dapat mengubah aplikasi untuk posisi lain jika aplikasi tersebut belum diproses oleh Chevron, atau status aplikasi masih dalam "Menerapkan" langkah. Semua pemohon harus login dan pergi ke menu "Terapkan Posisi" lalu klik posisi baru untuk menerapkan.

      Tahapan Seleksi Loker PT Chevron Indonesia :
      1. Applying Jobs
      2. Administration Screening
      3. Aptitude Test
      4. Interview
      5. Medis Examination
      6. Job Offering
      7. On Boarding

      Catatan :
      • Loker Terbaru Migas PT Chevron Indonesia ditutup pada tanggal : 12 April 2015

      Bagaimana Anda tertarik untuk bekerja di PT Chevron Indonesia

      Jika anda tertarik dengan loker hari ini bulan April 2015 ini yaitu yang memberikan informasi kepada anda tentang : Lowongan Kerja Terbaru PT Chevron Indonesia, Silahkan siapkan berkas Lamaran Kerja beserta kelengkapannya kemudian kirim via ONLINE kesumber lowongan kerja dibawah ini :


      Sumber Lowongan kerja telah ditutup

      Stewart Lee on jungle canyon rope bridges

      Young activists do not understand why so many people still hate Margaret Thatcher.

      Let Stewart Lee explain why...

      Living With Small Quilts

      Using everyday items in a different way is a great 
      way to display little quilt. This galvanized letter holder
      is perfect for a few folded up small quilts.
      I purchased this letter holder at Pottery Barn several years ago. 
      The little house quilt was made using the pattern from this blog.

      Solid As A...

      Decades after the first lesson, my eyes are still scanning the beaches.  It needs to be the right shape to smoothly fit in the curve formed by my thumb and index finger.  If it's not the correct weight, too heavy or too light, it won't sail over and bounce on the water.  With the precise angle and wrist action, a personal best is always possible.  It's not simply about skipping stones though but the memories attached to the days.

      When gathering rocks for an outdoor fireplace, a garden wall or pathway through the yard, conversations are remembered.  After permission is granted, a farmer may be ready to chat.  There is history within rocks, a history of our earth, but there is history surrounding rocks and their use by humans and other animals.  You have to be ready to look, touch and listen.

      Few collaborative efforts express genuine appreciation for natural elements more than the books, A Leaf Can Be... and Water Can Be... written by Laura Purdie Salas with illustrations by Violeta Dabija.  Their third title, A Rock Can Be... (Millbrook Press, March 1, 2015) is as illuminative and inspirational as its predecessors.

      A rock is a rock.
      It's sand, pebble, stone.
      Each rock tells a story,
      a tale all its own.

      With an introduction as comforting as a beloved sanctuary, readers are enveloped in this new exploration of earth's foundation.

      Eleven two-word pairs portray a particular perspective.  We are guests in a conversation created by two gifted artists, one in words and the other in illustrations.  We are awakened to wonders we might never see or those we fail to notice daily.

      Rocks offer challenges to be met or vessels for water.  They preserve the prehistoric past or lead us to a destination.  As a fiery rumble or a silent glow, these stones speak.  Game pieces, building adornment, and warmth maker, their uses are numerous.

      Rocks provide shelter, form sandy hills, light the night sky and supply the finishing touch on a living planet.  They make mealtime easier, give sanctuary to sailors and bridge boundaries.  Seen on hands, in village squares, on bookshelves and in farming communities, their purpose is apparent.

      Now go and discover
      what else it can be!


      When these marvelous two-word couplets are formed by the masterful Laura Purdie Salas the passion she feels for her subject is there for us to read.  Not only does she reveal how rocks shape our lives but her descriptions ask us to examine how we select words to express ourselves.  I can imagine her thinking about all the spots and spaces occupied by rocks, then choosing the exact combinations to make it a sensory experience for us.  Here are two of her couplets.

      Tall mountain
      Park fountain

      Volcano flow-er
      Night glow-er


      Using a blend of traditional and digital media, the luminosity seen in the earlier titles returns in these illustrations rendered by Violeta Dabija. The matching dust jacket and book case take us to the seashore where the cheerful crab and sentinel seagull (on the back) direct us to the title and a poetic question, respectively.  It's interesting to compare the three books together.  The solid color endpapers on one become the main background color for the jacket and case on another.  In this instance the blue from Water Can Be... supplies the opening and closing hues.  The golden yellow from this book is seen on the endpapers of A Leaf Can Be... as well as on its title. A circle of pebbles in blue, golden yellow, brown and white frame the text on this book's title page.  The beach from the jacket and case appears as a double-page spread for the verso and first page; two feet resting on sand and pebbles, a fish fossil in view.

      With each image Dabija places all the elements with care making strikingly atmospheric scenes.  You want to climb her mountains, walk through the glen next to an ancient fountain, eavesdrop on students in a museum or search for a perfect pebble.  Page turns give us a glorious window into another world.

      Delicate details invite closer inspection; scrolled stone pots holding flowers, dust aglow from sunshine stirred by a butterfly's flight, or lace gracing a wrist.  Picture size, edge to edge, shifts with the poetic phrases from single to double.  The larger visuals are a breathtaking blend of two separate thoughts.

      You can nearly hear the waves washing against the rock walled harbor in one of my favorite images.  On the left sailboats silently sit in a protective arc, a lighthouse guarding the entrance.  The buildings in the seaside community spread across the gutter from left to right.  A canal runs through the village center, bridges placed at intervals.  Shades of blue, purple and red with splashes of white supply a true feeling of serenity.


      A Rock Can Be... written by Laura Purdie Salas with illustrations by Violeta Dabija has you wishing it was a pebble you could pick up and carry in your pocket.  Using our eyes and imaginations first and then using our own senses second, we notice rocks with a brand-new mindset.  This book is a gift from Laura Purdie Salas and Violeta Dabija to us.  Now we need to pass it on to others as often as we can. The concluding five pages showcase informative explanations about each of the two word phrases, a Glossary and a list of five books for Further Reading.  

      To discover more about Laura Purdie Salas and Violeta Dabija please follow the links attached to their names.  You will be able to visit Salas's website and an illustrator page devoted to Dabija.  For most of March on a daily basis Laura Purdie Salas has been tweeting about all the things rocks can be.  They are collected on her blog.

      Plans to turn former Loughborough pub into mortuary with flats above

      Headline of the Day goes to the Leicester Mercury.

      Lowongan Kerja Rabbani

      Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Rabbani
      Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Rabbani - Rabbani merupakan perusahaan garment yang bergerak dalam bidang retail busana muslim dengan tagline Professor Kerudung Indonesia. Rabbani merupakan salah satu perusahaan kerudung instan pertama dan terbesar di Indonesia dengan mengeluarkan produk andalan berupa kerudung instan dan produk lain yang juga telah dikembangkan yaitu busana muslim diantaranya kemko, tunik, kastun, kemko,tunik serta perlengkapan lain seperti ciput/inner kerudung dan aksesoris. Untuk meningkatkan kinerja serta mewujudkan visi misi nya, Rabbani kembali membuka Lowongan Kerja kesempatan kepada putra putri Indonesia untuk bergabung menjadi bagian dari Rabbani melalui Rekrutmen Loker Terbaru Rabbani sebagai berikut :


      Untuk mencapai visi perusahaan yaitu menjadi kelompok bisnis terkemuka di Indonesia yang memberikan pelayanan terbaik kepada stakeholder-nya, Rabbani sedang mencari pemuda - pemudi terbaik yang sangat kompeten dan termotivasi diri untuk mengisi posisi lowongan kerja terbaru 2015.

      Dalam rangka memperluas jaringan bisnis terbaru bulan April 2015 dan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sumber daya manusia Rabbani di Lowongan kerja Terbaru posisi: BANYAK LOWONGAN KERJA

      Pada hari ini bulan April 2015 Rabbani kembali membuka kesempatan berkarir atau membuka Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Rabbani untuk lulusan terbaru dengan kualifikasi sebagai berikut :


      Lowongan Kerja Terbaru 2015 Rabbani


      Posisi Loker Rabbani :

      1. Sales Consultant Muslimah (SCM)

      Lokasi : 
      • Malang Kepanjen,
      • Trenggalek (Jawa Timur),
      • Kota Bogor,
      • Kabupaten Karawang

      Deskripsi Kerja / Job Description
      • Bertanggung jawab dalam pendisplayan produk.
      • Bertanggung jawab dalam menjaga keamanan produk, kebersihan dan kerapihan produk.
      • Menjual produk sesuai dengan target.
      • Membantu customer dalam mencari pilihan produk.
      • Memahami produk knowledge.

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Beragama Islam
      • Pendidikan minimal SMU/SMK/MA 
      • Usia maksimal 23 tahun
      • Lebih disukai berpengalaman 2 tahun diposisi yang sama
      • Berpenampilan menarik, 
      • Ramah, supel, mudah beradaptasi, energik, komunikatif, persuasif
      • Siap bekerja dengan target
      • Bisa mengoperasikan Komputer Ms Office

      2. Sales Consultant Muslim (SCM)

      Lokasi :Tarakan, Sangatta (Kalimantan)

      Deskripsi Kerja / Job Description
      • Bertanggung jawab dalam pendisplayan produk.
      • Bertanggung jawab dalam menjaga keamanan produk, kebersihan dan kerapihan produk.
      • Menjual produk sesuai dengan target.
      • Membantu customer dalam mencari pilihan produk.
      • Memahami produk knowledge.

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Beragama Islam
      • Pendidikan minimal SMU/SMK/MA
      •  Usia maksimal 23 tahun
      • Lebih disukai berpengalaman 2 tahun diposisi yang sama
      • Berpenampilan menarik, 
      • Ramah, supel, mudah beradaptasi, energik, komunikatif, persuasif
      • Siap bekerja dengan target
      • Bisa mengoperasikan Komputer Ms Office

      3. Driver Wanita

      Lokasi : Jakarta

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Wanita
      • Usia 20-28 tahun
      • Pendidikan minimal SMA/Sederajat
      • Memiliki SIM A
      • Berpengalaman dalam bidang yang sama lebih disukai

      4. Cleaning Service

      Lokasi : Sumedang

      Deskripsi Kerja / Job Description
      • Mampu berkomunikasi dengan baik
      • Jujur dan teliti 
      • Berpenampilan menarik

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Diutamakan Pria dengan usia max. 22-30 tahun
      • Pendidikan SMA/Sederajat
      • Memahami proses kerja tenaga kebersihan dengan mempertimbangkan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja 

      5. Sales dan Marketing Qur'anic Food

      Lokasi : Bandung

      Deskripsi Kerja / Job Description
      • Merancang strategi pemetaan pasar
      • Merancang penyusunan display produk
      • Membuat konsep excellent service
      • Memimpin tim dan membuat strategi untuk mencapai target omset
      • Merancang strategi promosi produk

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Beragama islam
      • Berjenis kelamin laki-laki
      • Usia maksimal 35 tahun
      • Pendidikan minimal D3 Jurusan Pemasaran, Bisnis Manajemen, dan jurusan lainnya yang berkaitan dengan IPK min 3,00
      • Berpengalaman minimal 2 tahun dalam bidang yang sama
      • Memiliki jiwa leadership yang kuat
      • Memiliki mobilitas yang tinggi
      • Bisa bekerja di bawah tekanan
      • Energik, supel, persuasif, dan menyukai tantangan
      • Bisa mengoperasikan Microsoft Office, Excel, dan Power Point
      • Siap ditempatkan di Bandung

      6. Accounting Staff

      Lokasi : Bandung

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Beragama Islam
      • Laki-laki, Usia maks 28 tahun
      • Pendidikan min D3/S1 jurusan Akuntansi
      • Bisa mengoperasikan komputer akuntansi dan Microsoft Office
      • Mengerti laporan keuangan
      • Bisa bekerja secara individu atau team
      • Pengalaman minimal 1 tahun dibidang yang sama
      • Bisa bekerja target oriented
      • Penguasaan tentang fixed asset

      7. Drafter Arsitek

      Lokasi : Bandung

      Persyaratan / Requirements
      • Diutamakan Pria dengan usia max. 35 tahun
      • Pendidikan min. D3/S1 Arsitektur, SMK pembangunan
      • Menerima Fresh Graduate
      • Menguasai gambar kerja dan detail Arsitektur & Interior
      • Memiliki ketertarikan TINGGI dalam bidang arsitektur
      • Mampu menerjemahkan gambar desain ke dalam gambar kerja
      • Menguasai Autocad, Sketchup, Photoshop
      • Mampu mengurus IMB menjadi nilai tambah
      • Bekerja teliti, cermat, efektif dan dapat bekerja dalam tim


      Catatan :
      • Pendaftaran Loker 2015 Rabbani ditutup tanggal : 30 April 2015

      Bagaimana Anda tertarik untuk bekerja di Rabbani ?

      Jika anda tertarik dengan lowongan kerja terbaru hari ini bulan April 2015 ini yaitu yang memberikan informasi kepada anda tentang : Lowongan Kerja Terbaru Rabbani, Silahkan Kirim LAMARAN KERJA, CV, fotocopy KTP (2 lembar), foto 4x6 terbaru (2 lembar), surat keterangan sehat, dan SKCK via POS atau datang langsung kesalah satu Agen Rabbani dibawah ini :


      1. Human Capital departement 
      Jl.Citarum no.20 A Bandung. Telp 022-7234254 
      Atau ke Email : recruitment@rabbani.co.id

      2. HCD Departement Rabbani Kabupaten Bekasi
      Alamat : Jl. Sultan Hasanuddin Ruko Tambun CITY Blok RA 2 - RA 3 Tambun Selatan
      telepon : 085659643141

      3. HCD Departement Rabbani Kota Bogor
      Alamat : Jl. Kapten Muslihat Ruko Taman Topi Square Ruko B No. 3
      telepon : 085659643141

      4. HCD Departement Rabbani Malang KEPANJEN
      Alamat : Jl. A. Yani no. 75 Kepanjen Kab. Malang 
      telepon : 08881111848 
      Emai : recruitment.jateng_jatim@rabbani.co.id
      Kode : SPG

      5. HCD Departement Rabbani Trenggalek
      Alamat : Jl. Panglima Sudirman No. 12 Kec. Trenggalek (COMING SOON)
      telepon : 08881111848 (Binsar)
      Emai : recruitment.jateng_jatim@rabbani.co.id
      Kode : SPG

      6. HCD Departement Rabbani Tarakan
      Alamat : Jl. Yos Sudarso No 9 (Depan Hotel Fatmaloka) 
      telepon : 081212582640 

      7. HCD Departement Rabbani Sangatta
      Alamat : Jl. Yos Sudarso II Kel. Sangatta Utara (Sebrang Mall STC) 
      telepon : 081212582640


      Sumber Lowongan Kerja :

      DARPA Uses Open Systems, ‘Plug and Fly’ to Boost Air Power



      By Cheryl Pellerin
      DoD News, Defense Media Activity

      WASHINGTON, March 30, 2015 – The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is unveiling a new program to boost U.S. air superiority by separating payloads such as weapons and sensors from the main air platform, and using open-system architectures to seamlessly integrate plug-and-fly modules into any kind of platform.

      The program, called System of Systems Integration Technology and Experimentation, or SoSITE, aims to develop and demonstrate concepts for flying combinations of aircraft, weapons, sensors and mission systems that distribute air-warfare capabilities across interoperable manned and unmanned platforms.

      The DARPA vision is to integrate new technologies and airborne systems with existing systems faster and at a lower cost than advanced adversaries can counter them, Dr. Nils Sandell Jr., director of DARPA’s Strategic Technology Office, told DoD News in a recent interview.

      “We feel that the [Defense] Department is facing some significant technical challenges,” he said.

      Threatened Technological Lead

      “I talk to my friends and neighbors, and they take it for granted that [the United States] has air superiority and that we can impose our ability to project power anywhere we want to,” he said, adding that high-end potential adversaries have been systematically developing their own equipment and systems.

      “Our technological lead is definitely threatened,” Sandell said. “The threats are not only external but also self-inflicted by the extreme degree of complexity being crammed onto massive military platforms.”

      “Our systems are becoming so complex, so time consuming to produce, that we can't keep pace with commercial technology and we can't keep pace with the threat,” the director said.

      Because fielding or upgrading advanced airborne systems can take decades and cost billions of dollars, he added, it has not been possible to modernize subsystems in the complex platforms apace with rapid advances in commercial technology.

      System of Systems

      “A system-of-systems approach could help overcome [the] inherent issue with high-cost, monolithic, multifunction platforms,” Sandell said.

      Distributed air-warfare platforms have other advantages, he added.

      “What we would like to enable is a future scenario in which a smaller number of manned aircraft would combine with unmanned aircraft to do [a] total job,” the director said. “They would be networked together … and the unmanned aircraft could venture into the more dangerous territory, providing some degree of risk avoidance for the pilots.”

      The unmanned platforms would be simpler and could do individual jobs like carry weapons, electronic warfare systems or sensors –- the last allowing the manned aircraft to be silent and harder to detect, he said.

      Distributed Air Warfare

      “The fundamental idea is to take platforms that today are manned, monolithic and expensive, and distribute the capability over a much more heterogeneous set of platforms to perform similar functions,” Sandell said.

      In such a configuration, the pilot becomes a battle manager, deciding what the small aircraft should be doing and how to orchestrate it, Sandell said, and DARPA has a suite of programs whose automation is designed to help pilots with the task.

      “We’ve recently come out with [a program] called Distributed Battle Management, and that's exactly to provide the automation and decision aids to enable a pilot to be able to fly his jet and do these future tasks,” the director said.

      It’s also important that the pilot is the decision maker, he added.

      Communications in Contested Environments

      “We're not talking about a totally robot army or something like that,” Sandell said. “The pilot has to be able to exert control [and] to be in communication with these platforms, so we have a communications program called Communications in Contested Environments that's working the issue of getting these platforms to talk to one another.”

      DARPA’s vision is that the combination of robust communications and automation will be sufficient to allow the pilot to do those tasks, he added.

      Sandell said he wants to be clear that DARPA is not trying to replace air platforms like the F-35 or the F-22, but rather to augment their capabilities.

      “[The monolithic platforms] are going to be expensive,” he said. “We probably won't be able to buy as many of them as we would like to if history plays out, so we want to be sure that the services, who ultimately make decisions about what to buy, [have] an enriched set of options as they go forward.”

      Open-architecture Approaches

      For the SoSITE program, a second focus involves DARPA and the services’ engagement in open-architecture efforts to allow platforms to be upgraded with equipment that seamlessly plugs and plays.

      Sandell said the legacy approach, which often involves a yearslong process to agree on standard interface, can limit the ability to integrate new technology that doesn’t fit within that interface. By contrast, he added, open-architecture tools more easily allow the integration of new technology when it comes along.

      The Air Force has an effort called Open Mission Systems, and DARPA is collaborating closely with them, Sandell said. The Navy has an open-architecture effort called Future Avionics Capability Environment that DARPA works with, and they have recently shown impressive accomplishments, he added.

      SoSITE Program Phases

      The SoSITE program has two phases, and it is now in the two-year-long first phase, which has two technical areas, or TAs.

      TA1 is architecture analysis, and TA2 is integration technology. The program is less than a quarter of the way through the first phase. In the second phase, the plan is for the two Phase 1 technical areas to come together for the program’s experimentation portion.

      According to DARPA, the agency has awarded contracts to develop concepts for system-of-systems architectures and tools for rapid integration and testing.

      Under those contracts, Boeing, General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman are developing and analyzing promising architectures and designing plans for flight experimentation with the architectures.

      Apogee Systems, BAE Systems and Rockwell Collins are developing tools and technologies to enhance open-system architecture approaches.

      Robustness Against Cyberattack

      One of the limitations of open architecture is that it provides what Sandell said is known as “an increased attack surface” for cyberattacks.

      “What we're doing on our program, in our development of system-of-systems integration technology, is building robustness against cyberattack into the design process, as opposed to putting it in as an afterthought,” the director said.

      This involves things like building software into the system that is located in random places in memory so an attacker won't know where to go to find it, Sandell added. “There are techniques of that type we're building into the process,” he said.

      Of the three contractors who are developing techniques to better integrate system of systems, at least two of them are addressing the cyber problem and coming up with all sorts of techniques, Sandell said.

      Looking to the Future

      “They draw on our [Information Innovation Office] folks here at DARPA, the primary folks who do cyber, so we're not doing research on cyber so much as making sure the state of the art in cyber protection is built into the system of systems design process,” he added.

      Looking to the future, Sandell said that monolithic but sophisticated platforms like the F-35 probably will continue to have very high value.

      “I think they will be part of a family of systems or of a system of systems and not single silver-bullet solutions by themselves,” the director said. “In particular, we think that any of the future platforms would be designed in much more of an open-architecture fashion, so although the platform may last for a long time and take a while to develop, the electronics in it can be upgraded much more rapidly.”

      He said he thinks, in a sense, "the F-35 is the last of a kind. I don't think we'll develop anything that tightly integrated in the future.”